Top 10 Poorest Countries in Africa By GDP 2021

African countries are the world’s most poorest countries on the planet. There are very little chances that these countries can able to improve their living standards. African nations have no or very slow economic growth. Most of the African poorest nations are living on the aid of rich countries. Below is the list of top 10 poorest countries in Africa as per GDP ratio.

list of Top 10 Poor Countries in Africa By GDP Per Capita

  1. Somalia ($500)
  2. Central African Republic ($681)
  3. Democratic Republic of the Congo ($785)
  4. Burundi ($808)
  5. Liberia ($867)
  6. Niger ($1,153)
  7. Malawi ($1,172)
  8. Mozambique ($1,266)
  9. Eritrea ($1,434)
  10. South Sudan ($1,503)

Also Interesting to Read: Poorest countries in the World

A Glimpse on African Continent Poverty

Africa is the poorest continent on the globe. This continent has lowest economic success level around the world. Though Africa is trying to speed up their economic growth and has seen excellent monetary growth and improvement in the past few eras.

At the same time some nations of Africa are not showing any economic growth and development that the other nations would like. On the other hand the nations which are getting improved economically are not experiencing as much improvement which a notion needs.

Also Read: Poorest Countries in Europe

Due to economic insecurity, unpredictability of political environment & civil wars leads toward poverty in African citizen’s life. These factors are used to analyze the wealth of economies globally is the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In the global market GDP per capita is used to see the purchasing power of every nation. This is best indicator which is used to understand how an economy is rich and how an economy is poor.

Also Read: Top 10 Poorest Countries in Asia

African economies normally fall downward of any list which is considering small size economic movement, like income per capita (GDP per capita), regardless wealth of natural resources. Thus Africa is considered to be a poorest continent on the earth.

According to 2009, 22 nations out of 24 recognized as enjoying low level human development on the United Nations (UN) human development index in sub-Saharan Africa. 34 nations out of 50 in the UN list are considered to be least established economies were in Africa according to 2006 survey with GDP per capita which is less than US$5200 each year.

Through HDI (Human Development Index) indicators easily measures the poverty line of Africa and other economies as well. This indicator is based on various points which are as follows

  • life expectancy at birth
  • regular school attendance period
  • predictable school attending period
  • per capita income

Poverty Causes or Reasons in Africa Continent

Education is the biggest problem in Africa as the indicators show, education is directly connected to poverty by the United Nations. According to the annual report of UN Malawi, Sierra Leone, Chad, Liberia, Burundi, Eritrea and Niger are continuously holding the last place that has not changed until 2014. 

Most of the African economies have mismanagement of land which leads in difficulty to attain mortgage or similar loan, as possession of the property often cannot be established to the satisfaction of investors. The extensive convenience of cheap labor has frequently spreading policies that inspire inefficient agricultural and industrial practices, leaving Africa further impoverished.

The population of African continent is rapidly increasing regardless of educating people thorough various ways and educational campaigns. UNICEF stated that through his survey that the population of Africa will double by 2050 to 2 billion people. This may effect economic growth and developmental success which leads African countries towards poverty.

Africa has been experiencing more and more changes in current eras like shocking floods and extreme drought times which lead to the failure of harvest. These elements are continuously increasing hunger crisis in the continent and also affecting east Africa & the Sahel region.

Diseases like AIDS, malaria or Ebola are spreading speedily due to lack of medical care. There is no proper treatment exists in that regions which leads to poverty in Africa. The expectancy of survival is rapidly decreasing and in return the ratio of orphan is increasing. Loss of labor is particularly visible in agriculture and leads to deficiency of food production.

Poor infrastructure, scarcity of electricity, information, roads & ICT (communication technology) leads to decrease in economic growth.

African Poorest nations 2021

The African poorest countries also considered poorest economies of the world. By taking into account the collected data from research which is presented into the GDP values of African economies.

Which is the poorest country in Africa Continent?

Somalia is the poorest country in Africa as per GDP per capita.

According to research Somalia has lowest GDP per capita of $500 and ranked as 54 numbers in the list of lowest GDP per capita in Africa continent. Globally it ranked at 188 number in the list.

As we all know population growth is the major concern in these third world countries. The rapid population growth in these countries is one of the key reasons of slowing down economy. let’s have a look into below paragraphs about the population growth and expectations in future.

The 2nd poorest country in Africa is Central African Republic that has population of 4.7 million people & has life expectancy of 52.9 years.

On the basis of research Equatorial Guinea has highest gross domestic product value & on the other side Somalia considered with lowest GDP in Africa. By comparing highest GDP value to lowest GDP value the difference is approximately $34,365.18. there is a significant variation between the GDPs of different economies of Africa.


According to the study, population of Somalia will rapidly increase till 2099 with about 75.03 million people. By comparing the current population which is about 15.89 million will be nearly five times higher in 80 years than it is today.

Population growth rate in Somalia is 2.92 percent with negative net migration which is continuously increasing since 2015. That rate adds about 450,000 people to the population. Further fertility rate in Somalia is very high with 6.12 births per woman.

This continuous increase in population growth rate, moving Somalia n’s economy towards poor health care & instability.

Furthermore, investigation confirmations that in countries where 60% of the population is below 30, like Somalia (70%), the risk of civil clashes is much higher.

Central African Republic 

Central African Republic Population Growth

In recent years, the Central African Republic has been facing the trouble of corruption, which led to a rebellion and the 2012-2013 CAR conflict. This conflict led to the destroying of the ruler in 2013, which affected virtually all government to vanish and forced the CAR to become, as Prime Minister Nicolas Tiangaye in “anarchy, a non-state.” By the start of this year, the president and prime minister submitted resign.

One 3rd of the population which is approximately 1.6 million people in April 2014, some are in need of food and some are killed in the violence that has lasted for over a year. Central African Republic is facing the problem of growth rate and still in crisis.

Democratic Republic of the Congo ($785)


Prediction about Burundi population growth rate will exceed 50 million people in 2098. According to current calculation are 11.89 million people which assumed that it will remain increasing for the rest of the 21st century.

Population is increasing at a rapid rate of 3.12%. As a result, the yearly change in the population from 2019 to 2020 was over 360,000 people. This is because of very high fertility rate of 5.45 births per woman.

Although Benin is less developed economy and considered poorest country in the world with highest population growth rate.


Liberia also has highest population growth rate, although it has dropped in current years. It reached a high of 4.6% annual growth in 2006, but has since dropped to 2.7% population growth rate per year. Liberia’s population grew 274% from 1960 to 2012. This tendency of speedy growth in population growth rate is expected to continue over the rest of the years.

Liberia Population Growth

Like many needy nations, the birth rate in Liberia is virtually double the globally average, prominent to a great annual growth rate. According to 2019, the population was increasing 2.56% each year, which is really high level considering the financial and political situations in the country, however comparatively low when you look at past few years.

The rate of growth is much exclusively because 4.58 children are being born to the average Liberian woman, as the country has constantly had more people immigrate away from the country than migrate into that country.

Actions are being exercised to increase education about family planning and contraceptives, but it takes many years for these kinds of efforts to take a stronghold.

 Liberia Population Predictions

Luckily, the annual growth rate of Liberia is going downward trend and is expected to slow down in the years to come, still not nearly enough to mitigate the country’s significant growth difficulties.

Current research believed that the annual growth rate will decrease from 2.55% in 2020 down to 1.87% by 2050. Throughout this time period, Liberia’s population will probably be close to 5,103,853 in 2020, 6,495,377 in 2030, 8,087,611 in 2040 and 9,804,031 by the year 2050.


Current research stated that Niger’s population is considered to last its growth throughout the rest of the century. Niger population will exceed 50 million people by 2041 and 100 million by 2068. Niger’s population is supposed to be around 163.2 million people by 2099.

In past few decades, it had slower down its population growth, at rates less than 3%. According to 1990, the population growth rate has considered above 3% each year. The 2020 population grew up to 3.84% over the 2019 population, adding about 896,000 people.

Niger had one of the highest fertility rates in the glob with 6.95 births per woman. This is slowed down than the 2019 rate of 7.27 births per woman. Its high fertility rates have caused in a constantly young population where the median age is 15.2 years old.


According to current study, Malawi’s population is considered to beat 50 million people by 2058 and reached 66.21 million by the end of the century. Current population is about 19.13 million in 2020, which means that Malawi’s population is likely to more than triple by 2099.

Malawi’s population observed increase about 2.69% from 2019 to 2020, considering about 500,000 people to the population. Although Malawi experienced negative net migration, the fertility rate of 4.25 births per woman helped to boost the population growth rate.

The rapid increase in population growth will challenge the country’s capability to fulfill the needs of its population and about its health, education, economic and agriculture sectors. The continuously increase in population growth will moved towards environmental and speedy depletion of resources which leaves poverty effect on economy.


Mozambique’s current population is 31.26 million. Mozambique’s population will exceed 100 million by 2078 and expected it will reached 122.8 million. It means that in coming eighty years, Mozambique is projected to almost quadruple its current population growth rate.

Mozambique is rapidly growing at a rate of 2.93% every year. The fertility rate is high at 4.89 births per woman, caused by early first pregnancies. Mozambique faces numerous challenges with population growth because it is very poor country in the Africa continent. Some challenges comprise ensuring access to health care and education.


In 2019 Eritrea experienced a very high fertility rate which was 4.13 births per woman with population growth rate of 2.35%. Life survival expectancy increased from 39 to 60 although child mortality rate has decreased significantly. This is encouraging Eritrea to grow, although the country does face serious health issues and lower living standards for many of its population.

Eritrea Population Predictions

The growth rate of Eritrea is likely to slow down towards the globally average in 2050 at 1.57%, conversely, the population will still see significant rises over this period.  It is considered that migrate rate remain reliable that more people leaving the country than coming into it every year.

In this situation the high birth rate in this continent will be the biggest contributor. Current predictions believe that the population of Eritrea will be roughly 5,432,216 in 2020, 6,717,687 in 2030, 8,152,540 in 2040 and 9,606,664 by 2050.

South Sudan

South Sudan’s population is considered to grow through the rest of the 21st century. At 11.19 million people as of 2020, the population is estimated to grow to 19.96 million people by 2050 and 31.74 million by 2100.

South Sudan grew 1.19% from 2019 to 2020, an increase of about 131,000 people. While net migration remains negative for the country, its fertility rate is higher at 4.74 births per woman. It makes for a very young population.

South Sudan’s increasing population is facing challenges such as an increasing population ratio, as much of the country is civilized and 33% of the population covers up to 7% of the land. Moreover, economic growth fights with the growing population and environmental degradation will continue to get worse.

South Sudan Population Growth

As the distribution of wealth between Sudan and South Sudan at the point of independence was determined in part by their comparative populations, the government in Khartoum had an incentive to change the figures.

Furthermore criticisms of the 2008 Sudan population survey were that it omitted the South Sudanese diaspora, that poor weather and communication conditions had prohibited some people from being surveyed, and that the Sudanese Government had denied sharing the raw population data from the survey with the Government.

A 2008 survey concluded that the population of South Sudan was 8,260,490. Conversely, this figure is disputed because the survey was conducted by the Sudanese Government of the time and is believed by many to have been manipulated for political reasons.

South Sudan Population Predictions

Luckily, the growth rate in South Sudan has slowed down significantly due to post Darfur conflict, and rates are predicted to continue slowdown in the years to come. But, the growth will still be enough to see the population double over the next 30 years or so on.

Current predictions believe that the 2019 growth rate of 2.66% will peak in 2020 at 2.75% before declining towards 2% by 2040. These projections stated that the population of South Sudan will be 13,610,007 in 2020, 17,254,367 in 2030, 21,189,205 in 2040 and 25,366,221 in 2050.

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